Leukemia (Blood Cancer)

Human blood is made up of many different cell types including red blood cells that carry oxygen, platelets to help blood clotting and white blood cells that fight against infections. They are all originally based from the stem cells that have the potential to evolve into any type of blood cell as they divide and mature.Known as ‘differentiation’, the problems in this processare at the route of all blood cancers. On how and when does this problem occur, the type of blood cancer is depended on this.

Due to the large number of immature blood cells produced by the body developed due to these problems causes the body function to not work properly. They also lead to clogging up the bone marrow that prevents the other types of blood cells that are performing their regular task.

Someone in the UK is told they have a blood cancer, every 14 minutes is the study shown.Unfortunately, blood cancer affects a large number of people. The average says that 104 people a day are diagnosed with blood cancer.

Blood cancers are categorized into three different groups. There is some information on few of the more common examples of each group so that everyone can learn more about thedisease.

  • Leukemia (blood cancer)
  • Lymphoma
  • Myeloma

The options for the treatment are giventhat are either before or instead of a stem cell transplant.

Leukemia (blood cancer)

Leukemia is the cancers that affect human body’s blood cells, mainly your white blood cells and bone marrow. These cells are often dividedvery quickly and they don’t tend to develop properly, this compromises the immune system and the ability to fight against infections.

There are many types of Leukemia which are either ‘acute’ or ‘chronic’ depending on how they behave. Basically, the acute conditions develop very quickly and they need to be treated aggressively right away. Chronic conditions are usually growingvery slowly and intensive treatment for it may not be needed straight away.

Leukemia (blood cancer)is a form of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow. Usually,every blood cellis produced by the bone marrow (the spongy area in the middle of bones) in a controlled manner. Thesimple property that the leukemia has got in common is thatall the leukemia cells are abnormal and they do not acknowledge to normal control mechanisms. Immense numbers of leukemia cells build up as they add on or as they live much longer than normal cells, or due to both. With multiple leukemia cells in the bone marrow, these leukemia blood cells spill out into the bloodstream.

If you are likely to develop leukemia it is very important to know what exactly the type of it is. This is due to the outlook (prognosis) and treatments vary for the different types.

Common types of Leukemia(blood cancer)

The four most common types of leukemia are:

The four main types of Leukemia:

  • Acute myeloid Leukemia (AML)
  • Acute lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)
  • Chronic myeloid Leukemia (CML)
  • Chronic lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

Other types of Leukemia include:

  • acute promyelocyticLeukemia (APL)
  • hairy cell Leukemia (HCL)
  • large granular lymphocytic Leukemia (LGL)
  • t-cell acute lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL)
  • chronic myelomonocyticLeukemia (CMML)

According to the type of cell that is affected each main type of leukemia is given the name(a myeloid cell or a lymphoid cell) whether the disease begins in mature or immature cells, people might get leukemia (blood cancer) at any stage of age. Leukemia is likely to occur in people over the age of 60. The most common types of leukemia in adults are called AML and CLL.’ ALL’ is the type of leukemia which is most common in children.

What causes Leukemia?

The reason why a cell becomes abnormal is not known in most cases of leukemia. Certain risk factors that increases the chance that certain leukemia will develop, but this is only relatable for a small number of cases.

Risk factors for some types of leukemia include:

  • Radiation: Due to the atom bomb used in World War 2many of the survivorsdeveloped leukemia due to the fall out of radiation, which were the most harmful radiation. Previous radiation therapy for another condition.
  • The immune system is weakening due to any past treatment with chemotherapy or other drugs.
  • Due to Certain genetic disorders for e.g. Down’s syndrome
  • Exposure of skin to certain chemicals, such as benzene
  • The immune system is weakening due to any past treatment with chemotherapy or other drugs.

What are the signs & symptoms of Leukemia?

The majority of the bone marrow gets filled with the abnormal cells, as a large number of abnormal blood cells are made. It gets difficult for normal cells in the bone marrow to survive and produce enough normal mature blood cells, because of this. Later, the abnormal cells spill out into the bloodstream.

Therefore, the main problems which can develop include:

  • Tiredness or no energy
  • Aches in bones or joints (for example, knees, hips or shoulders)
  • Shortness of breath during physical activity
  • Mild fever or night sweats or chills
  • Black-and-blue marks (bruises) for no clear reason
  • Pale skin
  • Low white cell counts, especially monocytes or neutrophils
  • Pinhead-size red spots under the skin
  • Slow healing of cuts and excess bleeding
  • Chills during fever
  • Low white cell counts, especially monocytes or neutrophils

Usually the normal white blood cells combat infection as there are a reduced number of normal white blood cells. Therefore, serious infections are more likely to develop due to this.The symptoms can vary greatly, depending on the type and site of infection which develops, the symptoms can vary greatly.

The disease starts varying after there is certaintime taken to develop these symptoms.Usually, it is within weeks for ALL or AML. It may take time from months or years for these symptoms to develop with CLL or CML as these leukemia progresses slowly.

Warning signs

  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Feeling weak or tired
  • Bleeding and bruising easily
  • Discomfort or swelling in the abdomen
  • Weight loss/loss of appetite
  • Pain in the bones or joints
  • Fevers or night sweats
  • Frequent infections

Risk factors

Most cases arise without a known cause. However, some known risk factors are:

  • Exposure to certain chemicals, such as benzene
  • Smoking
  • Certain genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome
  • Certain types of previous cancer treatments like chemotherapy or radiation therapy (this happens rarely)
  • Family history of blood cancer

Ablood cancer specialist orblood cancer Doctors and a surgeon are the most important person incase of cancer occurrence. The abnormal cells can be stopped from growing through proper medication, cancer prevention, vaccination, chemotherapy, surgery, palliative care, immunotherapy, laser therapy, radiation treatment and proper treatment from specialist doctors and surgeon.

Medication - After knowing the proper type and stage of the cancer one is suffering from, the medication is prescribed by the doctors/ specialist. Medication is the major part in the treatment of cancer. Doctors/ specialist or radiation therapy specialist must have proper knowledge about every stage and its treatment. Blood cancer Doctors or blood cancer specialist play an important role in treating the cancer. To treat it in the early stage a proper intake of medication can cure cancer fast. People should be aware of the medication and steps to be taken in case of any symptoms. Chemotherapy or radiation therapy is one of the effective ways used by the doctors to treat cancer. Chemotherapy should be taken if suggested by the doctors/ specialist or surgeon.Chemotherapyshould be done under proper care of the doctors/ specialist or radiation therapy specialist. Chemotherapy treatment Hospital should be well equipped and chemotherapy treatment Hospital should provide services in affordable rates.

Asian Institute of Medical Sciences is a center of excellence in health care. Located in Thane district, Mumbai (India). Ourcancer hospital is a modern Super specialty 125 bedded hospital. The cancer hospital also includes an Institute in research, medical & paramedical Education. Our hospital has an objective to always provide comprehensive health care services at par with international standards.

High quality of medical services at AIMS hospital is evident with its highly qualified doctors, medical services of high caliber, state of art infrastructure, modern age technology and efficient allied services.

In case of any emergency diagnosis should be done as fast as possible in the nearby hospital. Every hospital should have the facility for diagnosing and providing basic treatment for the fever, weight loss or any other symptom seen that is relatable to cancer. A hospital should be a complete place for the treatment of any kind of disease or illness.